049 - Cooperative Positioning and Integrity Concept in Vehicle Platooning
Vehicle platooning is a scenario in which vehicles automatically follow each other in a sequential formation known as the platoon. Autonomous Vehicle Platooning is a promising feature that could be provided by future self-driving cars, trucks and other vehicles. It involves a human driver that is either physically present or is remotely controlling the vehicle at the platoon lead. Autonomous Vehicle Platooning implies a less constraining safety level compared to fully Autonomous Passenger Vehicles (APVs).
Compared to APVs, Autonomous Vehicle Platooning exploits a trajectory for each vehicle as well as for the whole platoon. Enabling elements are:
- Relative ranging and cooperative positioning;
- Inter-vehicular communication and situational awareness;
- Suitable positioning and integrity algorithms.
In this context, GNSS could constitute a key enabler of cooperative positioning by hybridising Moving Base RTK technology with Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) relative ranging. V2V can be achieved by mixing mmWave radar, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) sensors or exploitation of future Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) technologies, realised by Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC).
GNSS would act as a primary source for time and frequency synchronisation of the link between vehicles in 3GPP Cellular-V2X (C-V2X) technology.
Development of algorithms achieving lane-level accuracy, situational awareness and integrity data could also exploit cooperative positioning supplemented by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and map matching algorithms.
A set of suitable cooperative positioning and integrity algorithms is yet to be proposed in the frame of vehicle platooning and such investigations are deemed to carry significant innovations.
The objectives of the proposed activity are:
- study and develop cooperative positioning and integrity algorithms for Autonomous Vehicle Platooning, based on cooperative RTK, V2V relative ranging and V2X communications;
- develop a test platform for field trials.
The tasks to be performed will include:
- definition of the positioning concept and algorithms based on relative RTK technology complemented by V2V relative ranging and V2X communication;
- conceptual definition and performance assessment of the timing mechanism proposed for V2X communication and V2V ranging;
- identification and definition of cooperative positioning algorithms that could supplemented by AI and map matching algorithms;
- definition of testing scenarios, development of a software simulator and development of a test platform for proof-of-concept.
The results of the activity will provide:
- innovative positioning and integrity concept and set of algorithms based on cooperative RTK, V2V relative ranging and V2X communication;
- software simulator and test platform usable to foster development of future algorithms and concepts;
- promotion of GNSS-based solution as a key enabler of vehicle platooning and effective transportation.
The activity will benefit from coordination with GSA to obtain stakeholders’ view in this application domain. It will also take into due account related regulatory/ standardisation aspects (e.g. C-ITS delegated regulation, CEN’s GPSTART project). Available results of integrity analyses performed by GSA will be duly considered and assessed.