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Multi-layer PNT for SAR

Satellite Search and Rescue (SAR) standards are set and overseen by COSPASSARSAT. SAR instruments are currently flying on board MEO satellites in several GNSS constellations. These platforms complement the existing LEOSAR and GEOSAR satellites. Existing LEO/GEOSAR are slow in detecting an active beacon due to several limitations in design (limited satellites, fast orbits, no independent location…

Hollow Corner Cube Retro-Reflectors In-Orbit PNT

Optical solid Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) arrays are often implemented to allow laser tracking of satellites from ground. In order to achieve a measurable return signal, such arrays are typically rather large, and as conventional corner cubes are made of glass, the arrays are typically high in mass. However, in recent years, interest has grown in using hollow corner cubes for space…

Interference Monitoring from Space

A great number of civilian and military applications relies on GNSS for PNT, however its availability could be put at risk by threats such as local interference, amongst others.  GNSS spectrum monitoring is essential for: detecting, characterising and localising interference sources, which could endanger the adequate reception and processing of GNSS signals;  initiating a justified…

Quantum Metrology for secure PNT

Quantum metrology techniques show great potential to enhance both precision and security of existing PNT techniques. It has been shown that, by probing physical quantities using quantum states of light and/or matter, one can achieve a precision beyond the theoretical limit set by classical mechanics. This effect has been demonstrated in a variety of contexts and is particularly useful in optical…

Application of Machine Learning Technology for GNSS IoT Data Fusion

Recent advances in technology have contributed to the deployment of a "de-facto" large GNSS receiver array based on affordable smart devices that are easy to find in the consumer market (dual band smartphones, raw GNSS data recording, new sensors).  These devices, evolving fast with each new generation, feature an increasing number of capabilities and sensors able to collect a variety of…

PNT Timing & Synchronisation for Aviation Systems and Networks

GNSS is extensively used in aviation, notably for: positioning and timing for on board navigation purposes; timing and synchronisation for datalink communications (board to ground and viceversa); timing and synchronisation on ground for Surveillance, Air Traffic Control (ATC) and communication networks. GNSS time outages or unexpected anomalies may affect aviation systems and…

Machine-Learning to model GNSS systems

GNSS simulations are an important toolset supporting system engineering trade-offs and decisions. They are used to display and monitor key system performance indicators as well as study system behaviour, both through synthetic scenarios and real data replay. Industry and ESA currently use different tools to simulate GNSS systems, however often constrained to undertake only one of two different…

AI-enabled baseband algorithms for High Fidelity Measurements

Critical applications such as autonomous vehicles and machine control require high fidelity raw measurements in challenging environments. In spite of significant progress made in recent years, for those applications GNSS performance remains unsatisfactory in terms of reliability in challenging environments, therefore requiring improvement. The main challenges lie in handling transfer functions…

Antenna and Transponder Unit for Underwater PNT

Underwater wireless communications links have almost exclusively been implemented using acoustic systems. Optical links have proved impractical for many applications. Although underwater radio links were experimented in the pioneering days of radio, they did not meet the requirements of the time. Given modern operational requirements and digital communications technology, the time is now ripe for…

Advanced concept for chip-scale atomic clocks

Interest in compact and low power consumption atomic clocks (aka CSAC, Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks) have been progressively increasing in the last decade based on benefits demonstrated for a wide range of application, such as PNT in adverse environment (long coherent integration), secure telecommunication (frequency hopping) or in order to allow timing hold-over capability in case of loss of GNSS…